Claims regarding intellectual property rights are handled by the Icelandic Patent Office, which is dependent on international cooperation, and Iceland is party to a number of international agreements in this field. Furthermore, the Agreement on the European Economic Area has led to several legislative amendments in Iceland that align with the directives and regulations of the European Union. No similar incidents were reported during the coverage period of this report. Iceland has a vibrant digital sphere, and almost all traditional media, including print, radio, and television, offer versions of their content online.
Self-censorship is not a widespread problem in Icelandic online media, and there are very few instances of government or partisan manipulation of online content. The websites of some newspapers, like the daily Morgunbladid , are among the most popular Icelandic-language sites. The Ministry of Finance also encourages private companies to use the electronic invoice system.
Several public administration services are accessible via Mobile ID reached via the official e-service portal online. Mobile ID can be used to log into public systems, as well as to sign documents. Digital tools are widely used for social, political, and civic activism in Iceland. In summer , a digital campaign to raise awareness on sexual abuse grew from a women's group on Twitter, followed by a campaign on Facebook.
Women who had experienced sexual violence, or who knew someone else who had been a victim, changed their profile picture to a specific emoji in yellow or orange, in order to speak out about the problem. The popularity of social media sites like Facebook has been used to engage the population in the process of redrafting the Icelandic constitution over the past few years. The existing constitution is an almost exact copy of the Danish constitutional text, which was adopted when Iceland gained independence from Denmark in In the wake of the Icelandic financial crisis in , the population demanded an extensive review of the country's constitution.
In , the prime minister appointed a committee on constitutional affairs to continue the work on the constitution, in accordance with an agreement reached by parliamentary parties. Emphasis continues to be on transparency, informed debate, and public participation. In February , the committee on constitutional affairs publicly issued three draft bills for public comment, concerning natural resources, environmental issues, and a referendum on the initiative of a share of voters, and comments and feedback were made public.
The Icelandic Pirate Party is aligned with a network of other similarly named political parties throughout the world that also promote a platform of free expression, and was the first Pirate Party to win seats in a national election in Iceland has a strong tradition of protecting freedom of expression that extends to the use of the internet. The Icelandic Modern Media Initiative seeks to develop legal frameworks for protecting the press, bloggers, and whistleblowers from illegitimate prosecutions or harassment.
Individuals are rarely prosecuted for social or political content posted online, though libel laws remain a concern.
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In late , Icelandic government websites were the target of several cyber attacks from the activist group Anonymous as a protest against Iceland's commercial whaling activity. Freedom of expression is protected under Article 73 of the Icelandic constitution. Despite strong protections for free speech, libel and insult are criminal offenses subject to fines or a prison sentence of up to one year. According to Article 51, journalists cannot be held responsible for potentially libelous quotes from sources, but they can be held responsible for libel in their own content.
In the past few years, the government has pursued several legislative and policy initiatives to enhance internet freedom. In June , following the financial crisis and inspired by the whistleblower website WikiLeaks, the Icelandic parliament approved a resolution on the Icelandic Modern Media Initiative, which aims to create a global safe haven with legal protection for the press, bloggers, and whistleblowers.
A member of the committee expects that at least two bills will come out of this work. In early , a series of bills to further the objective of establishing Iceland as a safe haven for free speech were submitted to Parliament, primarily by the Pirate Party, but were not passed. In June , blasphemy was repealed as a criminal offence under Article of the Penal Code. It had carried penalties of fines or imprisonment for up to three months. Other legislative efforts are ongoing.
A parliamentary resolution on equal access to the internet concerning the benefits of a free and unrestricted internet and the protection of user rights, was adopted in late and awaited implementation in mid Icelandic internet users are periodically prosecuted for their online activities, particularly for libel. The woman apologized and removed her remarks. Following revelations in that U.
Currently, the Electronic Communications Act of implements data retention requirements mandated by Iceland's inclusion in the European Economic Area. It also states that companies may only deliver information on telecommunications in criminal cases or on matters of public safety, and that such information may not be given to anyone other than the police or the public prosecution. No registration is required when purchasing a SIM card in Iceland.
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In November and December , the internet activist group Anonymous attacked several Icelandic government websites, including those operated by the Ministry of Home Affairs, the Ministry of Foreign Affairs, as well as the Prime Minister's Office. The attacks were a protest against Iceland's commercial whaling activity and were flagged on social media under the hashtag OpWhales. Since June , the Icelandic National CERT, operating within the Post and Telecom Administration in Iceland, has been the national center point for cyber security incidents and participates in international efforts and cooperation.
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Email this document Printable version. UNHCR is not responsible for, nor does it necessarily endorse, its content. Living in Iceland With its beautiful landscapes, midnight sun, and awesome glaciers and volcanoes - Iceland is truly a unique study destination. From Northern lights to cosy evenings spent under the stars in one of the many outdoor hot tubs, you should find something to entertain yourself during the endless summer days and dark winter nights.
Iceland is one of the highest ranked countries in the world when it comes to gender equality, democracy, renewable energy, safety, health care and education. Experience Iceland With its beautiful landscapes, midnight sun, and awesome glaciers and volcanoes, Iceland is a truly unique study destination. What about the Icelandic language? The Icelandic people almost universally speak English as a second language. RU is a bilingual campus with most graduate programs offered in English. Students can easily live, study and work in Iceland using only English. Not to miss: — Taking it easy in an outdoor hot tub watching the snowfall and chatting to locals.
International Students Every year RU welcomes students from all over the world.
- International Relations of Iceland.
- To Serve the President: Continuity and Innovation in the White House Staff.
- 30 Healthy Meals for Kids (Healthy Eating for Kids).
- You are here;
- The Unlimited Power of God.
The dedicated international team can assist you with applying, pre-arrival information and welcoming you on campus. Courses for exchange students are offered in all Schools at both undergraduate and graduate level. Each year RU welcomes students from universities all over the world. Courses are available at both bachelor and masters level.
Verity Louise Sharp International Admissions verity ru. Starting at RU Orientation days International students begin their studies at RU with the two-day international orientation programme. The orientation programme provides a comprehensive introduction to the University and services, as well as introducing students to life in Iceland. Mentor groups All RU international students are placed in mentor groups before arrival. The Mentors are current or recently graduated students, who want to share their perspective on living and studying in Iceland. Mentors greet, register and lead students during the orientation and arrange social activities to introduce students to life in Iceland.
Information for institutions The International Office has developed extensive networks of partnerships and agreements with international institutions. A number of modules are offered in English for visiting students, but the undergraduate programmes are in general taught in Icelandic.
All Schools, offer full degree programmes taught in English. PhD research opportunities are posted on the RU website. A full list of courses offered can be found in the online course catalogue: en. Academic Calendar The University year is divided into two semesters, autumn and spring. The autumn semester runs from mid-August to mid-December and the spring from January until the end of May. Entry to full degree programmes is in the autumn only. This sets RU apart from other universities in Iceland. Innovation and Entrepreneurship Graduate students at all Schools can choose electives that form a crossdisciplinary emphasis on Innovation and Entrepreneurship.
Courses are research-based and practically oriented. They address the most critical aspects of innovation and entrepreneurship, including creative or alternative approaches to challenges, product development, leadership and finance.
Related ICELAND Country Studies: A brief, comprehensive study of Iceland
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